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Slackware, OpenBSD, and a bit of a Debiantard.

FOSS and Privacy Advocate.

Secure, Enterprise Cloud.

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tallship boosted

Okay I thought I'd share this recent post here on the . To give it some context, it's an answer to a common question, often a misunderstanding (even by many knowledgeable folks) as to just how we got here.

So first, the question, posed HERE.

And my answer follows below:

There's a lot of apples and oranges here. And everyone had a lot of good points made, but your question is simple, and has a very simple answer. I'll endeavor to address that directly, but do need to tend to some of what has already been said.

## Scroll down to the tl;dr for the succinct answer of your question

Ethernet, ARCNET, Token Ring, Thick net (RG-59), Thin net (RG-58 A/U), and UTP (Cat 3, Cat 5, and Cat 6 unshielded twisted pair, Etc.) really have zero bearing on your question insofar as IP is concerned. All of these specifications relate to the definition of technologies that, although are indeed addressed in the OSI model which is indeed very much in use to this day,but are outside the scope of Internet Protocol. I'll come back to this in a minute.

It's quite common to say TCP/IP, but really, it's just IP. For example, we have TCP ports and we have UDP ports in firewalling. i.e., TCP is Transmission Control Protocol and handles the delivery of data in the form of packets. IP handles the routing itself so those messages can arrive to and from the end points. Uniform Data Protocol is another delivery system that does not guarantee arrival but operates on a best effort basis, while TCP is much chattier as it guarantees delivery and retransmission of missed packets - UDP is pretty efficient but in the case of say, a phone call, a packet here and there won't be missed by the human ear.

That's a very simplistic high level-view that will only stand up to the most basic of scrutiny, but this isn't a class on internetworking ;) If you just want to be able to understand conceptually, my definition will suffice.

Networking (LAN) topologies like Token Ring, ARCNET, and Ethernet aren't anywhere in the IP stack, but figure prominently in the OSI stack. I'm not going to go into the details of how these work, or the physical connection methods used like Vampire Taps, Thin net, or twisted pair with RJ-45 terminators, but their relationship will become obvious in a moment.

The OSI model unfolds like so, remember this little mnemonic to keep it straight so you always know:

> People Don't Need To See Paula Abdul

Okay, touched on already, but not really treated, is the description of that little memory aid.

> Physical, Data Link, Network, Transport, Session, Presentation, and Application layers (From bottom to top).

The physical and Data Link layers cover things like the cabling methods described above,and you're probably familiar with MAC Addresses (medium access control) on NICs (network interface controller). These correlate to the first two layers of the OSI stack, namely, the Physical (obvious - you can touch it), and the Data Link layer - how each host's NIC and switches on each LAN segment talk to each other and decide which packets are designated for whom (People Don't).

In software engineering, we're concerned mostly with the Session, Presentation, and Application layers (See Paula Abdul). Detailed explanation of these top three layers is outside the scope of this discussion.

The Beauty of the OSI model is that each layer on one host (or program) talks to exclusively with the same layer of the program or hardware on the other host it is communicating with - or so it believes it is, because, as should be obvious, is has to pass its information down the stack to the next layer below itself, and then when it arrives at the other host, it passes that information back up the stack until it reaches the very top (Abdul) of the stack - the application.

Not all communication involves all of the stacks. At the LAN (Local Area Network) level, we're mostly concerned with the Physical and Data Link layers - we're just trying to get some packet that we aren't concerned about the contents of from one box to another. But that packet probably includes information that goes all the way up the stack.

For instance, NIC has the MAC: 00:b0:d0:63:c2:26 and NIC has a MAC of 00:00:5e:c0:53:af. There's communication between these two NICs over the Ethernet on this LAN segment. One says I have a packet for 00:00:5e:c0:53:af and then two answers and says, "Hey that's me!" Nobody else has that address on the LAN, so they don't answer and stop listening for the payload.

Now for Internet Protocol (IP) and TCP/UDP (Transmission Control Protocol and User Datagram Protocol):

IP corresponds to Layer 3 (Need) - the Network Layer of the **OSI Model.

TCP and UDP correspond to Layer 4 (To) - the Transport Layer of the OSI model.

That covers the entire OSI model and how TCP/IP correspond to it - almost. You're not getting off that easy today.

There's actually a bit of conflation and overlapping there. Just like in real life, it's never that cut and dried. For that, we have the following excellent explanation and drill down thanks to Julia Evans:

- Layer 2 (Don't) corresponds to Ethernet.
- Layer 3 (Need) corresponds to IP.
- Layer 4 (To) corresponds to TCP or UDP (or ICMP etc)
- Layer 7 (Abdul) corresponds to whatever is inside the TCP or UDP packet (for example a DNS query)

You may wish to give her page a gander for just a bit more of a deeper dive.

Now let's talk about what might be a bit of a misconception on the part of some, or at least, a bit of a foggy conflation between that of the specification of the OSI model and a Company called Bolt Beranek & Newman (BBN) a government contractor tasked with developing the IP stack networking code.

The TCP/IP you know and depend upon today wasn't written by them, and to suggest that it was the OSI model that was scrapped instead of BBN's product is a bit of a misunderstanding. As you can see from above, the OSI model is very much alive and well, and factors into your everyday life, encompasses software development and communications, device manufacturing and engineering, as well as routing and delivery of information.

This next part is rather opinionated, and the way that many of us choose to remember our history of UNIX, the ARPANET, the NSFnet, and the Internet:

The IP stack you know and use everyday was fathered by Bill Joy, who arrived at UC Berkeley in (IIRC) 1974), created vi because ed just wasn't cutting it when he wanted a full screen editor to write Berkeley UNIX (BSD), including TCP/IP, and co-founded Sun Microsystems (SunOS / Solaris):

> Bill Joy just didn’t feel like this (the BBN code) was as efficient as he could do if he did it himself. And so Joy just rewrote it. Here the stuff was delivered to him, he said, “That’s a bunch of junk,” and he redid it. There was no debate at all. He just unilaterally redid it.

Because UNIX was hitherto an AT&T product, and because government contracting has always been rife with interminable vacillating and pontificating, BBN never actually managed to produce code for the the IP stack that could really be relied upon. In short, it kinda sucked. Bad.

I highly recommend that you take a look at this excellent resource explaining the OSI model.

# tl;dr:

So! You've decided to scroll down and skip all of the other stuff to get the straight dope on the answer to your question. Here it is:

> What were the major things that caused TCP/IP to become the internet standard protocol?

The ARPANET (and where I worked, what was to become specifically the MILNET portion of that) had a mandate to replace NCP (Network Control Protocol) with IP (Internet Protocol). We did a dry run and literally over two thirds of the Internet (ARPANET) at that time disappeared, because people are lazy, software has bugs, you name it. There were lots of reasons. But that only lasted the better part of a day for the most part.

At that time the ARPANET really only consisted of Universities, big Defense contractors and U.S. Military facilities. Now, if you'll do a bit of digging around, you'll discover that there was really no such thing as NCP - that is, for the most part, what the film industry refers to as a retcon, meaning that we, as an industry, retroactively went back and came up with a way to explain away replacing a protocol that didn't really exist - a backstory, if you will. Sure, there was NCP, it was mostly a kludge of heterogeneous management and communications programs that varied from system to system, site to site, with several commonalities and inconsistencies that were hobbled together with bailing twine, coat hangers, and duct tape (for lack of a better metaphor).

So we really, really, needed something as uniform and ubiquitous as the promise that Internet Protocol would deliver. Because Bill Joy and others had done so much work at UC Berkeley, we actually had 4.1BSD (4.1a) to work with on our DEC machinery. As a junior member of my division, in both age and experience, I was given the task of, let's say throwing the switch on some of our machines, so to speak, when we cut over from the NCP spaghetti and henceforth embraced TCP/IP no matter what, on Flag Day - 01 January 1983.

So you see,the adoption of Internet Protocol was not a de facto occurrence - it was de jure, a government mandate to occur at a specific time on a specific day.

It literally had nothing to do with popularity or some kind of organic adoption, the erroneously described, so-called demise of the OSI model, or any physical network topology.

### DARPA said 01 January 1983 and that's it, and that was it - Flag Day.

Sure, it took a few days for several facilities to come up (anyone not running IP was summarily and unceremoniously cut off from the ARPANET).

And one also needs to consider that it wasn't every machine - we only had some machines that were Internet hosts. We still had a lot of mainframes and mini computers, etc., that were interconnected within our facilities in a hodgepodge or some other fashion. Nowadays we have a tendency to be somewhat incredulous if every device doesn't directly connect over IP to the Internet in some way. That wasn't the case back then - you passed traffic internally, sometimes by unmounting tapes from one machine and mounting them on another.

There was a lot of hand wringing, stress, boatloads of frustration, and concern by people over keeping their jobs all over the world. But that's why and when it happened. Six months later in the UNIX portions of networks we had much greater stability with the release of 4.2BSD, but it wouldn't really be until a few years later Net2 was released that things settled down with the virtually flawless networking stability that we enjoy today.



tallship boosted

Here we go folks!

This just in, hot of the press, on the tail end of the NLnet grant and the release of Garage version 1.0 - w00t. 🤘💀🤘


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An excellent expose on one of the most prolific and creative minds in the , and as the following article by @sean eludes to, far far beyond.

@mike 's contributions to and go back much further than just the portions of the Fediverse, well over a decade in fact, as the creator of , now , and also and , which promises to be a show changer for identity in the world of Social communications.

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OpenAI’s voice cloning AI model only needs a 15-second sample to work

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July 30th, 2021 - The very best Mexican restaurant in Eureka, California... And it's on wheels.

Speaking of wheels, that's my truck in the background there.

Nevertheless, it's good to be back home in where there's certainly a lot more culinary choices to choose from, but up north, this was a personal go-to of mine.

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12 August 2020, off-grid on the living room of my cabin in the wilderness of Humboldt, California.

My rooster waits for me to come outside so he can flog me... Cuz he's one mean assed motherfucker and never learns that Imma just punt him instead.

That is, if my favorite hen, who also waits for me everyday to follow me around and body block him. Yeah, she literally would kick his ass when he tried to attack me.

She would eat yummy veggies from my garden right out of my hand.

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This is really messed up stuffs...

I call it despotic overreach via subjugation through state sponsored industrial surveillance systems.... It has nothing to do with capitalism but rather, that thing that Thomas Jefferson gave us... you know, the thing.

Been to a grocery store lately? You've been complaining for decades now, that they artificially inflate the prices of items so that they can offer you steep discounts on a rotating list of them - If, and only if, you consent to being a "club member". Personally, I've consented many a times; Rite-Aid, Albertson's, Wallgreens, CVS,Von's, and many others, as Brittney Spears, Charles Manson, Joseph Stalin, and even John Rambo, another obvious to combat what would follow as spam but worse, industrial surveillance and privacy mining (of course, you also need to use a fake phone number and a /dev/null email addy).

Have you tried to buy things at Jack in the Box or 7/11 or Mcdonald's lately? ... They have an app for that. Why do you suppose that is? They could just as easily and more efficiently deliver their content via PWS/webapps through your regular browser experience (they don't want to be counter-measured with uBlock Origin or integrated anti-tracking measures on the more sensible web browsers).

They're working really hard to deliver you to evil. I walked into a Smart & Final the other day and saw an unbelievable price for a 30 pack of Natural Light Beer - you had to use a "digital coupon" (just like you do at 7/11 to pay the regular, competitive price for an item). I asked the cashier where in their weekly rag the "digital coupon" was located, and she informed me that one needs to install an app to be eligible for the discount. Fuck that noise. Homey don't play dat.

China has WeChat ... Resistance is Futile.

When you install an app, it's a whole different ballpark of invasiveness, intrusions, data farming, and privacy mining, it's like it's your first day in and you announce that you're going to drop the soap as you shower.

So the next time someone says, "Thank you for shopping at Walmart!", or synonymously, "Go Fuck Yourself", just smile, and offer, "Yes, there's an app for that".

What follows below in the I've shared, that so inspired me to address this issue, is not a simple inconvenience - it's a new beginning :p In , you do everything on your app - you submit your elementary school homework, you buy stuffs at the local market, you inform on yourself and your friends to their state equivalent of the , and you tell them exactly where to come and arrest, perhaps even disappear you. ? Healthy? awesome! Now your a live organ donor too - you can thank for that one.

You have been assimilated 🖖

All Your Base Are Belong To Us

h/t to @gabriel for bringing this to us via his




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Can you say, "yummy"?

Hot, spicy, and yummy in my tummy!

Custom veggie stir fry supper with peppers 🌶️, mushrooms 🍄, lots of fresh garlic🧄, and baby octopus 🐙.

Plated and ready to serve!


tallship boosted

Ever seen one of these?

I had a classmate that used to bring his to class every night. Just slung his satchel w/the keyboard over his shoulder and carried this in his arms up the elevator and down the hall to class.

It's a Pronto Series 16, running at a blazing fast 8Mhz, and that's a 5.6 MByte removable hard disk there too. Pronto Computers was located in Torrance (my hometown) just down the street from Epson and Ashton Tate (dBase II, III)

Heck I can't even remember the guy's name, but he worked in some local aerospace company and fancied himself an ubergeek; if this box is any indication he sure was, lolz.

So what's so special about this machine? Well, if you ask any 50 people about an IBM compatible computer that ran on an intel 80186 CPU they'll prolly all tell you there was never any such beast - but there was, and this was it (I recall it was fast as fuck, so they prolly pioneered manufacturing production machines that were ahead of their time, while IBM and the clone manufacturers decided to skip a generation and take their time working on a platform that leveraged the 80286.).

The hard disk was light years ahead of its time too - portable Zip Drives (100MBytes) didn't appear on the scene for another ten years, but this was an actual miniature hot swappable Syquest HDD spinning at I believe, the standard of 3600 RPMs.... I can't be sure though, but it was nice listening to that quiet buzz saw sound just singing along.

We were in a Pascal class together, so he would show up, insert a disk, boot to UCSD P-System and off he would go. The rest of us would too, but we had those noisy 5&1/4" floppy disks that made all those cute noises in our IBM 5150 PCs (4.77MHz 8080 CPUs), lolz.... Well, we did have a few XT's w/HDDs, some VT-52 like terminals for the PDP-11, and some 3270 terminals too connected to a mainframe at the main campus in Sandy Eggo.

His was a screamer for sure, and I'd only ever seen an amberchrome monitor for mini computers at work, which were much larger. The graphics (Yah, we actually called them graphics at the time) were superior to what we could do w/o an expensive card and matching .51mm dot pitch color monitor too.

I had lots of minis, super-minis, and a few mainframes at work, but in the personal computer world there was literally nothing that could perform like this 8MHz 186... nothing. It was a screamer!

But alas, after him spending close to five grand, the IBM 3270 PC/AT was soon to be released, relegating that guys 186 hot rod to the annals of forgotten songs and unsung heroes. The new machines kinda trickled in though, so if you wanted one of those you got to the computer lab early. They also supported HD Floppies w/1.2MB storage - a vast improvement over that of the earlier, so-called Double Density 360KB floppies, although there were some issues moving data between those two formats that required a few tricks - like loading an earlier (kinda like sourcing another shell once you ssh into a box)... Okay I'm rambling.

I kinda liked that guy, and kinda didn't. Most of the other students didn't care for him too much. He was arrogant and one of those, "Mine's better than yours" sort of person, but he was competent, friendly with me, generally speaking, for a guy who was wound real tight, and I could tell he didn't get any pussy, so I kinda felt sorry for him too.

I should mention that there technically were a couple of other manufacturers out there during that era shipping 80186 computers, but I've never seen any of them and don't know anything about them.

Well, that's about it for that era, I just thought that I'd share that little bit of computer history with everyone. I hope you enjoyed reading about this truly innovative machine and it's brief time on the market.

@SDF :)


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I mean.... lolz...

Hey! It's public! As are your posts public too, lolz.



Edited 39d ago
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Looking through the poppies in my garden towards my old in the mountains of , .

These were wonderful times... Before the fires of the .

This is one of my fav photos of my old home in the serene isolation of .

I had a few wonderful years here, before having to to a world consumed by fear and uncertainty amidst the calamity of the global pandemic.

18 June 2018

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IOW - the reader doesn't have to leave their comfy Fediverse client, experience or venture into unsafe outside networks or sites with trackers and other data mining engines.

A mission statement? As a decades long FOSS and Privacy advocate, it's really not much of a question to me. My immediate answer is, "But, of course." We should strive for a UX that users will adore. Fact: I love Faceplant - I do! I don't use it, and stay in a galaxy far, far away, but I'm not gonna lie and say it's not one of the niftiest UIs in existence. Everything is smooth and just the right amount of opaque and glossy and smooth scrolling through the stream, wall, timeline, *whatev.

If we make it pretty, then that's going to win adopters from the general public. And if we gain people from the general population.... pretty kewl.

Make it functional
Make it featureful
Make it pritty (sic)

The Fediverse isn't a single, particular protocol powered network - OStatus, ActivityPub, Diaspora, Zot6, Nomad, Etc. is a horizontally scaling, logical network topography. It's the foundational concept that disrupts a monolithic architecture. Both are great, but when you're talking about human social intercommunications it sure sounds a heck of a lot more safe when there's one, three, or twenty seven accounts on a single Fediverse instance than twenty seven hundred or thousand user accounts. I'd argue that with that many active user accounts, you're really accommodating the deprecated, monolithic silo model.

I was successful, very recently, in encouraging a popular sharing service to completely drop the mastodon logo and stop using it. The project lead related to me that of note was the fact that all of the folks who had galleries had different addresses, not half of them actually mastodon addresses. All of the mastodon logos have now been replaced with the Fediverse logo. AND - THAT - IS - AWESOME

tallship boosted

And now for something completely different.

> "I don’t post directly because I am in prison for killing my wife Nina in 2006."

> "It has been an honor to be of even passing value to the users of Linux. I wish all of you well."

What was hitherto, your awareness, or understanding of these events? I'd love to here any comments on the matter and boosts are most welcome to widen the pool of available input. There's an awful lot that can be said on many facets of this.

NOTE: Mikhail Gilula is now the owner of (KeySQL).

tallship boosted

I'm going to offer an honorable mention here, but the fact that anyone can get a free NextCloud account with the same document feature sets and sharing capabilities as Google demands that I consider this a missed opportunity, if not a misguided community gesture by not taking the opportunity to dogfood on our own FOSS instead of a privacy disrespecting, deprecated, monolithic industrial mining silo.

I think leveraging Google Docs to gather input on how to:

> ...make open source open protocol social media easier.


> We're trying to make it better.

are statements belied by the fact that we're not dogfooding by actually using like we should be to make the point that we want to make better, by showing just how easy it is to obviate large swaths of ABC/Google properties by simply not using them:

In this day and age, I find it somewhat antithetical and at cross purposes to our overlying mission along with the whole set of philosophies behind building and advocating for adoption of the Fediverse in the first place, if we're going to ask people to go back to the and visit Google docs

- not just talk the talk.




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04 February, 2018, in the Humboldt wilderness.

Someone actually, somehow, went to the trouble of packing in a fricken' piano from the outside world. A feat that still, I scratch my head over.

The piano didn't make any sounds, save for dull thuds, but most of the keys weren't even raised. Somewhere I've a few shots of it, and I'm sure it has served as the nest of many a critter, lolz.

I find this oddly fashioned cabin intriguing, but precarious on the side of a hidden canyon

tallship boosted

First discovered in 2002, paleontologist draw comparisons of with other aquatic species having no modern day analogs - why did the entire family of or the genera exhibiting these morphological functionalities not continue?

Perhaps just as interesting is the convergent evolution (especially with respect to their necks) between that of Dinocephalosaurus and members of the Tanystropheus genus. A close resemblance on the surface, yet Dinocephalosaurus orientalis was strictly an aquatic species.

I've included an artists reconstructive rendition of Tanystropheus longobardicus for comparison between the two, but note that Dinocephalosaurus had four flipper-like feet of the same size, and unable to exist, or at least thrive in a terrestrial environment, where Tanystropheus exhibited larger feet in the rear - not unlike your hands being smaller than your feet.

And yes, as Yuki (@youronlyone) offers up as a contemplative inference, the whole "Dragon" and "Loch Ness Monster" corollaries are uncanny, raising questions as to why would pre-industrial societies actually have such fables, or in the case of the latter, claims of sightings, if not rooted in some previous observation by humans?

Dinocephalosaurus was extant from the late (late Permian period) through the early (early Triassic period) eras.

h/t to @youronlyone for bringing the latest news on this matter to me - I'm always fascinated with things related to - especially





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Valentine's Day - 6 years ago today in 2018, living off-grid in in the mountain of , California.

Just me, myself, and I, on a sunny afternoon with my wood fired Stanley cooker.

tallship boosted

Okay, have just submitted a PR to a fediverse project to fix a critical security vulnerability; CVE score is like 9.9/10.

More news once administrators of this servers using this project can upgrade safely.

Update: CVE was in @pixelfed, and the advisory is published here:

Edited 63d ago
tallship boosted

🚨 Pixelfed admins: please update ASAP to v0.11.11

More information will be published on Feb 25 to give admins time to update.

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Halloween, 2017 (October 31st) - Humboldt, California.

Matching his and her costumes.

You can easily tell which one is which, lolz.

Literally, I was off bucking up logs earlier in the day with a chainsaw and peeled these natural bark costumes from some of them. You can't make this stuff up, but a sick imagination does help you see the potential to use them as Halloween costumes while they're still wrapped around the logs.